Photovoltaic battery charger with sliding mode control and charging current derivative limitation
In stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems, battery chargers are important to guarantee
the energy supply when sunlight is not available. Such chargers need to track the maximum
power point (MPPT) and limit the derivative of the batteries’ charging current to extend
their lifetime. This paper proposes a battery charging system composed of a Buck converter,
a cascade control of the battery current and the PV panel voltage, and the Perturb and
Observe (P&O) MPPT technique. P&O generates the reference of the panel voltage for the
external loop of the cascade control implemented with a P regulator, whose control action is
the reference of the batteries’ charging current. Such current reference passes through a
derivative limiter before reaching the internal current control loop, which is implemented
by a sliding-mode controller (SMC). This paper includes transversality and reachability
analyses of the SMC, as well as the procedure to design the P regulator. The proposed
system is validated by simulations in PSIM software to show its capacity to perform MPPT
and limit the battery’s charging current derivative at the same time.
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