Prostasomas: search of biomarkers for the early detection of prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed disease in men worldwide, with an increasing mortality rate in recent years. Currently, there are two early detection tests, the measurement of blood levels of prostate-specific antigen and digital rectal examination of the prostate. However, these tests do not present optimal specificity and sensitivity for their detection. Although different studies have looked for new biomarkers by means of the implementation of technologies, such as new generation sequencing, mass spectrometry, among others, the same disadvantages persist, therefore, they have not allowed their use in clinical practice; The discovery of new biomarkers for the diagnosis of prostate cancer is a challenge for the scientific community.
Prostasomes correspond to extracellular vesicles secreted by normal prostate or tumor tissue that can be detected in different fluids. Structurally, prostasomes differ from other exosomes, by their size, membrane composition and specific protein content, which makes them a potential and novel source of clinical biomarkers.
In this context, this review presents an overview of protein biomarkers, isolated from prostasomes present in different biological fluids, for the possible diagnosis of prostate cancer. For this, a systematic PubMed search was carried out for studies in proteomics for prostate cancer, with criteria such as extracellular vesicles, exosomes and prostasomes, as well as blood, urine, seminal fluid, among other biological samples.
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