Neurocirugía y desplazamientos cerebrales: una revisión del estado del arte y principales contribuciones desde la robótica

  • Karin Correa-Arana Universidad de Cauca
  • Oscar A. Vivas-Albán Universidad de Cauca
  • José M. Sabater-Navarro Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche
Palabras clave: Neurocirugía, desplazamiento cerebral, robótica médica, neuronavegación, cirugía mínimamente invasiva

Resumen

Este artículo presenta una revisión acerca de la neurocirugía, los asistentes robóticos en este tipo de procedimiento, y el tratamiento que se le da al problema del desplazamiento que sufre el tejido cerebral, incluyendo las técnicas para la obtención de imágenes médicas. Se abarca de manera especial el fenómeno del desplazamiento cerebral, comúnmente conocido como brain shift, el cual causa pérdida de referencia entre las imágenes preoperatorias y los volúmenes a tratar durante la cirugía guiada por imágenes médicas. Hipotéticamente, con la predicción y corrección del brain shift sobre el sistema de neuronavegación, se podrían planear y seguir trayectorias de mínima invasión, lo que conllevaría a minimizar el daño a los tejidos funcionales y posiblemente a reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad en estos delicados y exigentes procedimientos médicos, como por ejemplo, en la extirpación de un tumor cerebral. Se mencionan también otros inconvenientes asociados a la neurocirugía y se muestra cómo los sistemas robotizados han ayudado a solventar esta problemática. Finalmente se ponen en relieve las perspectivas futuras de esta rama de la medicina, la cual desde muchas disciplinas busca tratar las dolencias del principal órgano del ser humano.

Biografía del autor/a

Karin Correa-Arana, Universidad de Cauca

PhD(c). en Ciencias de la Electrónica, Facultad de Ingeniería Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad de Cauca, Popayán-Colombia

Oscar A. Vivas-Albán, Universidad de Cauca

PhD. en Robótica, Facultad de Ingeniería Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad de Cauca, Popayán-Colombia

José M. Sabater-Navarro, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche

PhD. en Robótica, Departamento de Ingeniería de sistemas y Automática, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Elche-Alicante-España.

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Cómo citar
[1]
K. Correa-Arana, O. A. Vivas-Albán, y J. M. Sabater-Navarro, «Neurocirugía y desplazamientos cerebrales: una revisión del estado del arte y principales contribuciones desde la robótica», TecnoL., vol. 20, n.º 40, pp. 125–138, sep. 2017.

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2017-09-04
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