Motivaciones y barreras en la utilización de estrategias de e-marketing en pymes catalanas y el encaje del consumidor: el caso de la comarca del Alt Empordà

Palabras clave: marketing digital, pequeñas y medianas empresas, marketing en medios sociales, estrategia adaptativa

Resumen

Las respuestas por parte de las pequeñas y medianas empresas (pymes) en diferentes contextos a la hora de adaptar y aplicar las herramientas digitales en sus estrategias de marketing presentan diversos desafíos. El estudio se aplicó en la comarca Alt Empordà, de Cataluña (España) y buscó analizar las estrategias de e-marketing que adoptan las pymes e identificar las principales motivaciones y barreras en su utilización. La investigación también identificó qué estrategias de e-marketing implementadas por las empresas son mejor valoradas por los consumidores. Para ello se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo mediante el análisis de un caso en una microempresa, y se implementó una investigación cuantitativa a través de dos cuestionarios estructurados para recopilar información de propietarios y gerentes de 83 pymes y 351 consumidores. Los resultados evidenciaron que las empresas implementan el marketing digital en sus planes de mercadotecnia, más desde una visión operativa que estratégica. Se identificaron como principales barreras el tamaño de las empresas, el tipo de producto o servicio y el tipo de cliente, así como el poco reconocimiento por parte de las empresas de la necesidad de herramientas digitales. Además, se demostró la facilidad de lograr mejor visibilidad y alcance, y que el seguimiento de las tendencias de la sociedad digital emergen como principales motivaciones. Se concluye que hay una tendencia clara en la utilización de e-marketing por parte de las pymes analizadas, aunque también se infiere que los impulsores están enmarcados en el seguimiento de tendencias, en la búsqueda de una mayor visibilidad de las empresas en un entorno online, y no tanto en visualizar claramente los beneficios que este tipo de estrategia aportaría al negocio.

Biografía del autor/a

Denisa Ewerth, Universidad de Barcelona

Grado en Administración y Dirección de Empresas, Universidad de Barcelona,
Barcelona - España, ewerthdenisa@gmail.com

Michele Girotto, Universidad de Barcelona

Doctora en Administración y Dirección de Empresas, Universidad de Barcelona,
Barcelona - España, michele.girotto@ub.edu

Referencias Bibliográficas

Ahmad, S. Z., Ahmad, N., Abu Bakar, A. R. (2017). Reflections of entrepreneurs of small and medium-sized enterprises concerning the adoption of social media and its impact on performance outcomes: Evidence from the UAE. Telematics and Informatics, v. 35, n. 1, 6-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2017.09.006

Ahuja, V., Medury, Y. (2010). Corporate blogs as e-CRM tools - building consumer engagement through content management. Journal of Database Marketing and Customer Strategy Management, v. 17, 91-105. https://doi.org/10.1057/dbm.2010.8

Ali, Z., Ejaz, S., Aleem, A., Saeed, M. U., Tahir, F. A., Kashif, M. (2015). Understanding E-marketing as a firm’s promotional tool and its impact on consumer perception. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, v. 5, n. 3, 365-379. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v5-i3/1526

Apak, S., Atay, E. (2014). Global innovation and Knowledge Management Practice in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Turkey and the Balkans. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, v. 150, 1260-1266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.09.142

Aparici, R., García-Marín, D. (2018). Prosumidores y emerics: Análisis de dos teorías enfrentadas. Comunicar, v. XXVI, n. 5, 71-79. http://doi.org/10.3916/C55-2018-07

Arora, T., Agarwal, B. (2019). Empirical study on perceived value and attitude of millennials towards social media advertising: a structural equation modelling approach. Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective, v. 23, n. 1, 56-69. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972262918821248

Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, v. 17, n. 1, 99-120. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639101700108

Bartoloni, S., Ancillai, Ch., Pascucci, F., Gregori, G. L. (2019). Are SMEs ‘cutting corners’ on social media marketing? An exploratory study in the Italian context. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, v. 13, n. 4, 302-320. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJIMA.2019.103460

Belk, R. (2014). Sharing versus pseudo-sharing in Web 2.0. The Anthropologist, v. 18, n. 1, 7-23. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2014.11891518

Bharadwaj, A., El Sawy, O. A., Pavlou, P. A., Venkatraman, N. (2013). Digital business strategy: toward a next generation of insights. MIS Quarterly, v. 37, n. 2, 471-482. https://doi.org/10.25300/MISQ/2013/37:2.3

Blili, S., Raymond, L. (1993). Information technology: threats and opportunities for small medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Information Management, v. 13, n. 6, 439-448. https://doi.org/10.1016/0268-4012(93)90060-H

Bocconcelli, R., Cioppi, M., Fortezza, F., Francioni, B., Pagano, A., Savelli, E., Splendiani, S. (2016). SMEs and marketing: a systematic literature review. British Academy of Management, v. 20, n. 2, 227-254. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12128

Borges Tiago, M. T., Veríssimo, J.M. C. (2014). Digital marketing and social media: why bother? Business Horizon, v. 57, n. 6, 703-708. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2014.07.002

Brodie, R. J., Winklhofer, H., Coviello, N. E., Johnston, W. J. (2007). Is e-marketing coming of age? An examination of the penetration of e-marketing and firm performance. Journal of Interactive Marketing, v. 21, n. 1, 2-21. https://doi.org/10.1002/dir.20071

Bruhn, M., Schoenmueller, V., Schäfer, D. B. (2012). Are social media replacing traditional media in terms of brand equity creation? Management Research Review, v. 35, n. 9, 770-790. https://doi.org/10.1108/01409171211255948

Busca, L., Bertrandias, L. (2020). A framework for digital marketing research: investigating the four cultural eras of digital marketing. Journal of Interactive Marketing, v. 49, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2019.08.002

Camacho Rodriguez, L. D. (2018). Marketing digital en las pymes. [Tesis doctoral]. Universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia. https://repository.unad.edu.co/handle/10596/32906

Chaffey, D., Smith, P. R. (2012). E-marketing eXcellence. Planning and Optimizing your Digital Marketing (4ta ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203082812

Changhong, P., Bin, L. (2021). The Economics of China’s Opening Up: Developing an Economic Theory That Explains China’s Achievement. Social Sciences in China, v. 42, n. 1, 53-76. https://doi.org/10.1080/02529203.2021.1895500

Chatterjee, S., Kumar Kar, A. (2020). Why do small and medium enterprises use social media marketing and what is the impact: Empirical insights from India. International Journal of Information Management, v. 53, 102103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2020.102103

Chetioui, Y., Lebdaoui, H., Chetioui, H. (2020). Factors influencing consumer attitudes toward online shopping: the mediating effect of trust. EuroMed Journal of Business, 1450-2194. https://doi.org/10.1108/EMJB-05-2020-0046

Cheung, M. L., Pires, G., Rosenberger, P. J. (2020). The influence of perceived social media marketing elements on consumer-brand engagement and brand knowledge. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, v. 32, n. 3, 695-720. https://doi.org/10.1108/APJML-04-2019-0262

Cho, S., Huh, J. (2010). Content analysis of corporate blogs as a relationship management Tool. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, v. 15, n. 1, 30-48. https://doi.org/10.1108/13563281011016822

Christodoulides, G. (2009). Branding in the post-internet era. Marketing Theory, v. 9, n. 1, 141-144. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470593108100071

Cota-Yáñez, R., Cosme, J. A. (2016) Adopción de redes sociales digitales en las pymes de la industria del calzado de la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, Jalisco, México. Revista SECCI, n. 40, 48-68. https://doi.org/10.15198/seeci.2016.40.48-68

Cragg, P. B., King, M. (1993). Small firm computing: motivators and inhibitors. MIS Quarterly, v. 17 n. 1, 47-60. https://doi.org/10.2307/249509

Dahnil, M. I., Marzuki, K. M., Langgat, J., Fabeil, N. F. (2014). Factors Influencing SMEs Adoption of Social Media Marketing. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, v. 148, 119-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.025

De Swaan Arons, M., Van Den Driest, F., Weed, K. (2014). The ultimate marketing machine. Harvard Business Review, v. 92, n. 7, 54-63.

Dehkordi, G. J., Rezvani, S., Rahman, M. S., Fouladivanda, F., Nahid, N., Jouya, S. F. (2012). A conceptual study on E-marketing and its operation on firm’s promotion and understanding customer’s response. International Journal of Business and Management, v. 7, n. 19, 114-124. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v7n19p114

Dholakia, R. R., Kshetri, N. (2004). Factors affecting the adoption of the internet among SMEs. Small Business Economics, v. 23, 311-322. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:SBEJ.0000032036.90353.1f

Dorie, A., Loranger, D. (2020). The multi-generation Generational differences in channel activity. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, v. 48, n. 4, 395-416. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRDM-06-2019-0196

Dwivedi, Y.K., Ismagilova, E., Hughes, D. L., Carlson, J., Filieri, R., Jacobson, J., Jain, V., Karjaluoto, H., Kefi, H., Krishen, A. S., Kumar, V., Rahman, M. M., Raman, R., Rauschnabel, P. A., Rowley, J., Salo, J., Tran, J. A., Wang, Y. (2021). Setting the future of digital and social media marketing research: Perspectives and research propositions. International Journal of Information Management, v. 59, 102168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2020.102168

Flyvbjerg, B. (2006). Five misunderstandings about case study research. Qualitative Inquiry, v. 12, n. 2, 219-245. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1077800405284363

Foment del Treball Nacional. (2019). Actualidad. https://www.foment.com/es/pymes-generan-70-ocupacion-cataluna-pero-continuan-dificultades-para-encontrar-mano-obra-cualificada-y-acceder-financiamento/

Fournier, S., Avery, J. (2011) The uninvited brand. Business Horizons, v. 54, n. 3, 193-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2011.01.001

Gavrila Gavrila, S., de Lucas Ancillo, A. (2021). Spanish SMEs’ digitalization enablers: E-Receipt applications to the offline retail market. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, v. 162, 120381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2020.120381

Gilmore, A., Gallagher, D., Henry, S. (2007). E-marketing and SMEs: operational lessons for the future. European Business Review, v. 19, n. 3, 235-247. https://doi.org/10.1108/09555340710746482

Grant, R. M. (1991). The resource-based theory of competitive advantage: implications for strategy formulation. California Management Review, v. 33, n. 3, 114-135. https://doi.org/10.2307/41166664

Grewal, D., Roggeveen, A. L. (2020). Understanding retail experiences and customer journey management. Journal of Retailing, v. 96, n. 1, 3-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2020.02.002

Guinjoan, M., Bonal, M. (2019). Anuari de la Pime Catalana 2019: (1ª ed.). PIMEC, Petita i Mitjana Empresa de Catalunya. https://www.pimec.org/sites/default/files/anuari_de_la_pime_catalana_2019.pdf

Gutiérrez-Leefmans, C., Nava-Rogel, RM. (2016). Mercadotecnia digital y las pequeñas y medianas empresas: revisión de la literatura. Enl@ce: Revista Venezolana de Información, Tecnología y Conocimiento, v. 13, n. 1, 46-50. https://produccioncientificaluz.org/index.php/enlace/article/view/21106

Hadija, Z., Barnes, S. B., Hair, N. (2012). Why we ignore social networking advertising. Qualitative Market Research, v. 15, n. 1, 19-32. https://doi.org/10.1108/13522751211191973

Hassan, M., Kazmi, S. S. A. S., Padlee, S. F. (2019). Technology acceptance model (TAM) and dynamics of online purchase adaptability. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE), v. 8, n. 1S, 390-402. https://www.ijrte.org/wp-content/uploads/papers/v8i1S/A10570581S19.pdf

Hawawini, G., Venkat, S, Verdin, P. (2003). Is performance driven by industry or firm level specific factors. A new look at evidence. Strategic Management Journal, v. 24, n. 1, 1-16. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20060508

Helal, G., Ozuem, W., Lancaster, G. (2018). Social media brand perceptions of millennials. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, v. 46, n. 10, 977-998. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRDM-03-2018-0066

Hennig-Thurau, T., Malthouse, E.C., Friege, C., Gensler, S., Lobschat, L., Rangaswamy, A., Skiera, B. (2010). The impact of new media in consumer relationships. Journal of Service Research, v. 13, n. 3, 311-330. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670510375460

Herhausen, D., Kleinlercher, K., Verhoef, P. C., Emrich, O., Rudolph, T. (2019). Loyalty formation for different customer journey segments. Journal of Retailing, v. 95, n. 3, 9-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2019.05.001

Hervé, A., Schmitt, C., Baldegger, R. (2020). Internationalization and Digitalization: Applying digital technologies to the internationalization process of small and medium-sized enterprises. Technology Innovation Management Review, v. 10, n. 7, 29-41. http://doi.org/10.22215/timreview/1373

Instituto de Estadística de Cataluña. (2020). Empresas y establecimientos a 1 de enero. Por sectores de actividad y número de asalariados. https://www.idescat.cat/pub/?id=aec&n=975&lang=es

Instituto Nacional de Estadística. (2020). Población que usa Internet (en los últimos tres meses). Tipo de actividades realizadas por Internet. https://www.ine.es/ss/Satellite?L=es_ES&c=INESeccion_C&cid=1259925528782&p=1254735110672&pagename=ProductosYServicios/PYSLayout

Irshad, M., Ahmad, M. S., Malik, O. F. (2020). Understanding consumer`s trust in social media marketing environment. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, v. 48, n. 11, 1195-1212. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRDM-07-2019-0225

Karjaluoto, H., Huhtamäki, M. (2012). The role of electronic channels in micro-sized brickand-mortar firms. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, v. 23, n. 1, 17-38. https://doi.org/10.1080/08276331.2010.10593471

Karjaluoto, H., Leinonen, H. (2009). Advertisers’ perceptions of search engine marketing. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, v. 5, n. 1/2, 95-105. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJIMA.2009.021952

Kazungu, I., Panga, F. P., Mchopa, A. (2015). Impediments to adoption of e-marketing by Tanzanian small and medium size enterprises: an explanatory model. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, v. 3, n. 6, 587-597. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1038.1924&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Kelly, L., Kerr, G., Drennan, J. (2010). Avoidance of Advertising in Social Networking Sites. Journal of Interactive Advertising, v. 10, n. 2, 16-27. https://doi.org/10.1080/15252019.2010.10722167

Kozlova, O. A., Sukhostav, E. V., Anashkina, N.A., Tkachenko, O. N., Shatskaya, E. (2018). Consumer model transformation in the digital economy. En E. Popkova, V. Ostrovskaya (Eds.), Perspectives on the use of new information and communication technology (ICT) in the modern economy (279-287). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90835-9_33

Kraus, S., Gast, J., Schleich, M., Jones, P., Ritter, M. (2019). Content is king, how SMEs create content for social media marketing under limited resources. Journal of Macromarketing, v. 34, n. 4, 415-430. https://doi.org/10.1177/0276146719882746

Lăzăroiu, G., Neguriţă, O., Grecu, I., Grecu, G., Mitran, P. C. (2020) Consumers’ decision-making process on social commerce platforms: online trust, perceived risk, and purchase Intentions. Frontiers in Psychology, v. 11, 890. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00890

Lin, X., Featherman, M., Brooks, S. L., Hajli, N. (2019). Exploring gender differences in online consumer purchase decision making: An online product presentation perspective. Information Systems Frontiers, v. 21, 1187-1201. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-018-9831-1

Ližbetinová, L., Štarchoň, P., Lorincová, S., Weberová D., Průša, P. (2019). Application of cluster analysis in marketing communications in small and medium-sized enterprises: an empirical study in the Slovak Republic. Sustainability, v. 11, n. 8, 2302. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082302

Lockett, A., Thompson, S. (2001). The resource-based view and economic. Journal of Management, v. 27, n. 6, 723-754. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630102700608

Low, S., Ullah, F., Shirowzhan, S., Sepasgozar, S. M., Lin Lee, Ch. (2020). Smart digital marketing capabilities for sustainable property development: A case of Malaysia. Sustainability, v. 12, n. 13, 5402. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135402

Malhotra, A., Kubowicz Malhotra, C., See, A. (2013). How to create brand engagement on Facebook. MIT Sloan Management Review, v. 54, n. 2, 18-20. https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/how-to-create-brand-engagement-on-facebook/

Millán Tejedor, R.J. (2007). Marketing online. Creaciones Copyright S. L.

Moreno-Agudelo, J. A., Valencia-Arias, J. A. (2017). Factores implicados en la adopción de software libre en las Pyme de Medellín. Revista CEA, v. 3, n. 6, 55-75. https://doi.org/10.22430/24223182.673

Mosquera, A., Olarte-Pascual, C., Juaneda Ayensa, E., Sierra Murillo, Y. (2018). The role of technology in an omnichannel physical store: Assessing the moderating effect of gender. Spanish Journal of Marketing - ESIC, v. 22, n. 1, 63-82. https://doi.org/10.1108/SJME-03-2018-008

Noyola-Medina, A.M., Pinzón-Castro, S. Y., Maldonado-Guzmán, G. (2018). Innovation and digital marketing adoption in Mexican small business. Journal of Management and Sustainability, v. 8. n. 2, 18-27. https://doi.org/10.5539/jms.v8n2p18

Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (2019). OECD SME and Entrepreneurship Outlook 2019. OECD Publishing. https://www.oecd.org/industry/oecd-sme-and-entrepreneurship-outlook-2019-34907e9c-en.htm

Perdigón Llanes, R., Viltres Sala, H., Madrigal Leiva, R. (2018). Estrategias de comercio electrónico y marketing digital para pequeñas y medianas empresas. Revista Cubana de Ciencias Informáticas, v. 12, n. 3, 192-208. https://rcci.uci.cu/?journal=rcci&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=1713

Pérez Pérez, M., Martinez Sánchez, Á., de Luis Carnicer, P., Vela Jiménéz, M. J. (2006). Las TIC en las Pymes: estudio de resultados y factores de adopción. Economía industrial, n. 360, 93-105. https://eco.mdp.edu.ar/cendocu/repositorio/01026.pdf

Peter, M. K., Dalla Vechia, M. (2021). The digital marketing toolkit: a literature review for the identification of digital marketing channels and platforms. En R. Dornberger (Ed.), New trends in business information systems and technology: digital innovation and digital transformation (251-266). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-48332-6_17

Poetz, M. K., Schreier, M. (2012). The value of crowdsourcing: can users really compete with professionals in generating new product ideas? Journal of Product Innovation Management, v. 29, n. 2, 245-256. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2011.00893.x

Pushkar, O., Kurbatova, Y., Druhova, O. (2017). Innovative methods of managing consumer behaviour in the economy of impressions, or the experience economy. Economic Annals-XXI, v. 165, n. 5-6, 114-118. https://doi.org/10.21003/ea.V165-23

PyME, (2020). Cifras PyMe. http://www.ipyme.org/Publicaciones/CifrasPYME-enero2020.pdf

Rajković, B., Đurić, I., Zarić, V., Glauben, T. (2021). Gaining Trust in the Digital Age: The Potential of Social Media for Increasing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium Enterprises. Sustainability, v. 13, n. 4, 1884. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041884

Richey, M., Ravishankar, M. N. (2019). The role of frames and cultural toolkits in establishing new connections for social media innovation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, v. 144, 325-333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.07.026

Ritz, W., Wolf, M., McQuitty, S. (2019). Digital marketing adoption and success for small businesses: The application of the do-it-yourself and technology acceptance models. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, v. 13, n. 2, 179-203. https://doi.org/10.1108/JRIM-04-2018-0062

Rowley, J. (2008). Understanding digital content marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, v. 24, n. 5/6, 517-540. https://doi.org/10.1362/026725708X325977

Ryan, D., Jones, C. (2009). Understanding digital marketing. Marketing strategies for engaging the digital generation (1ª ed.). Kogan Page.

Salas L., E., Luna, A. (2018). Factores positivos y negativos en la implementación de marketing digital en Pymes de Guayaquil. Revista Observatorio de la Economía Latinoamericana. https://www.eumed.net/rev/oel/2018/03/factores-pymes-ecuador.html

Saura, J. R., Reyes-Menendez, A., de Matos, N., Correia, M. B., Palos-Sanchez, P. (2020). Consumer behavior in the digital age. Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, v. 8, n. 3, 190-194. https://www.jsod-cieo.net/journal/index.php/jsod/article/view/242

Shaltoni, A.M., West, D., Alnawas, I., Shatnawi, T. (2018). Electronic marketing orientation in the small and medium-sized enterprises context. European Business Review, v. 30, n. 3, 272-284. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-02-2017-0034

Simmons, G. J. (2007). I-branding: developing the internet as a branding tool. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, v. 25, n. 6, 544-563. https://doi.org/10.1108/02634500710819932

Singh, T., Veron-Jackson, L., Cullinane, J. (2008). Blogging: a new play in your marketing game plan. Business Horizons, v. 51, n.4, 281-292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2008.02.002

Slusarczyk Antosz, M., Pozo Rodríguez, J. M., Perurena Cancio, L. (2015). Estudio de aplicación de las TIC en las pymes. 3C Empresa, v. 4, n. 21, 69-87. https://ojs.3ciencias.com/index.php/3c-empresa/article/view/235

Strauss, J., Forst, R. (2001). E-marketing. Prentice Hall.

Taiminen, H. M., Karjaluoto, H. (2015). The usage of digital marketing channels in SMEs. Journal of Small and Business Enterprise Development, v. 22, n. 4, 633-651. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSBED-05-2013-0073

Thaha, A. R., Maulina, E., Muftiadi, R. A., and Alexandri, M. B. (2021). Digital marketing and SMEs: a systematic mapping study. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), 5113. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/5113

Thong, J., Yap, C. S. (1995). CEO characteristics, organizational characteristics and information technology adoption in small businesses. Omega, v. 23, n. 4, 429-442. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0483(95)00017-I

Trivedi, J. Y. (2013). A Study on Marketing Strategies of Small and Medium sized Enterprises. Research Journal of Management Sciences, v. 2, n. 8, 20-22. http://www.isca.in/IJMS/Archive/v2/i8/4.ISCA-RJMS-2013-064.php

Watson, G. F., Weaven, S., Perkins, H., Sardana, D., Palmatier, R. W. (2018). International market entry strategies: Relational, digital, and hybrid approaches. Journal of International Marketing, v. 26, n. 1, 30-60. https://doi.org/10.1509%2Fjim.17.0034

Weinberg, B.D., Pehlivan, E. (2011). Social spending: managing the social media mix. Business Horizons, v. 54, n. 3, 275-282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2011.01.008

Wu, W. -Y., Quyen, P. T. P., Rivas, A. A. A. (2017). How e-servicescapes affect customer online shopping intention: the moderating effects of gender and online purchasing experience. Information Systems and e-Business Management, v. 15, 689-715. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10257-016-0323-x

Yadav, M. S., Pavlou, P. A. (2014). Marketing in computer-mediated environments: Research Synthesis and New Directions. Journal of Marketing, v. 78, n. 1, 20-40. https://doi.org/10.1509/jm.12.0020

Yap, C. S., Soh, C. P. P., Raman, K. S. (1992). Information systems success factors in small business. Omega, The International Journal of Management Science, v. 20, n. 5-6, 597-609. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0483(92)90005-R

Yin, R. (2003). Applications of case study research. Sage.

Cómo citar
Ewerth, D., & Girotto, M. (2021). Motivaciones y barreras en la utilización de estrategias de e-marketing en pymes catalanas y el encaje del consumidor: el caso de la comarca del Alt Empordà. Revista CEA, 7(15), e1889. https://doi.org/10.22430/24223182.1889

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.
Publicado
2021-09-30
Sección
Artículos de investigación
Crossref Cited-by logo

Más sobre este tema