Bidirectional single sideband transmission of Millimeter Waves over Fiber for 5G Mobile Networks
This study proposes, experimentally demonstrates, and simulates a network architecture for the transport of millimeter waves (MMW) based on Radio over Fiber (RoF) techniques for the transport of signals in the fronthaul segment of the next 5G generation mobile systems. Such approach exploits the benefits of bidirectional single-sideband modulation in order to generate an optical subcarrier for the downlink transmission and a second subcarrier for the transport of the uplink services, as well as the centralization of optical sources. The proposed architecture is evaluated based on the analyses of the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance and Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) in both downlink and uplink. Likewise, simulation modeling of the approach was conducted in order to evaluate the quality of the MMW signals at different frequencies available in the MMW spectrum. The results show a power penalty lower than 2 dB for a 1x1-12 BER and an EVM below 12% within a power margin of 6 dB, which demonstrates the feasibility of the approach.
 J. G. Andrews et al., “What Will 5G Be?,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1065–1082, Jun. 2014.
 S. Rangan, T. S. Rappaport, and E. Erkip, “Millimeter-Wave Cellular Wireless Networks: Potentials and Challenges,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 366–385, Mar. 2014.
 T. S. Rappaport, Y. Xing, G. R. MacCartney, A. F. Molisch, E. Mellios, and J. Zhang, “Overview of Millimeter Wave Communications for Fifth-Generation (5G) Wireless Networks—With a Focus on Propagation Models,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 6213–6230, Dec. 2017.
 Jianping Yao, “Microwave Photonics,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 314–335, 2009.
 M. Maier and B. P. Rimal, “Invited paper: The audacity of fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks: revisited for clouds and cloudlets,” China Commun., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 33–45, Aug. 2015.
 P. Chanclou et al., “How Does Passive Optical Network Tackle Radio Access Network Evolution?,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 9, no. 11, p. 1030, Nov. 2017.
 R. Abdolee, R. Ngah, V. Vakilian, and T. A. Rahman, “Application of radio-over-fiber (ROF) in mobile communication,” in 2007 Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics, 2007, pp. 1–5.
 Gee-Kung Chang, Lin Cheng, Mu Xu, and D. Guidotti, “Integrated fiber-wireless access architecture for mobile backhaul and fronthaul in 5G wireless data networks,” in 2014 IEEE Avionics, Fiber-Optics and Photonics Technology Conference (AVFOP), 2014, vol. 4, pp. 49–50.
 M. Agiwal, A. Roy, and N. Saxena, “Next Generation 5G Wireless Networks: A Comprehensive Survey,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 1617–1655, 2016.
 C. Browning, E. P. Martin, A. Farhang, and L. P. Barry, “60 GHz 5G Radio-Over-Fiber Using UF-OFDM With Optical Heterodyning,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 23, pp. 2059–2062, Dec. 2017.
 D. Novak et al., “Radio Over Fiber Technologies for Emerging Wireless Systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 1–11, Jan. 2016.
 C. Liu, J. Wang, L. Cheng, M. Zhu, and G.-K. Chang, “Key Microwave-Photonics Technologies for Next-Generation Cloud-Based Radio Access Networks,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 32, no. 20, pp. 3452–3460, Oct. 2014.
 Y. Tian, K. L. Lee, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “60 GHz Analog Radio-Over-Fiber Fronthaul Investigations,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 35, no. 19, pp. 4304–4310, 2017.
 M. Xu et al., “Bidirectional Fiber-Wireless Access Technology for 5G Mobile Spectral Aggregation and Cell Densification,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 8, no. 12, p. B104, Dec. 2016.
 P. T. Dat, A. Kanno, and T. Kawanishi, “Radio on radio over fiber: efficient fronthauling for small cells and moving cells,” IEEE Wirel. Commun., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 67–75, Oct. 2015.
 K. P. Ho and H. W. Cuei, “Generation of arbitrary quadrature signals using one dual-drive modulator,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 764–770, 2005.
 M. Cely, R. Muñoz, G. Puerto, and C. Suárez, “Generación de señales para sistemas de radio sobre fibra basados en la combinación eléctrica de componentes de banda base y radiofrecuencia,” Ingeniare. Rev. Chil. Ing., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 403–411, Jul. 2016.
 Rohde & Schwarz, O. Werther, and R. Minihold, “LTE System Specifications and their Impact on RF & Base Band Circuits,” 2013