Location and optimal sizing of photovoltaic sources in an isolated mini-grid
This article introduces a new mixed integer linear programming model that guarantees the optimal solution to the location and sizing problem of distributed photovoltaic generators in an isolated mini-grid. The solar radiation curves of each node in the mini-grids were considered, and the main objective was to minimize electric power losses in the operation of the system. The model is non-linear in nature because some restrictions are not linear. However, this article proposes the use of linearization techniques to obtain a linear model with a global optimal solution, which can be achieved through commercial solvers; CPLEX in this case. The proposed model was tested in an isolated 14-bus mini-grid, based on real data of topology, demand and generation adapted to a balanced operation. This model shows, as a result, the optimal location of photovoltaic generators and their optimal capacity produced by the maximum active power delivered at the maximum solar irradiation time of the region. It is also evident that the hybrid operation between small hydroelectric power plants and photovoltaic generation improves the network voltage profile and the electric power losses without the use power storage systems.
W. N. Adger et al., “Human Security,” in Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, tergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Ed. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2014, pp. 755–791.
R. Fernández Reyes, “El Acuerdo de París y el cambio transformacional,” Depósito Investig. Univ. Sevilla, no. 132, pp. 101–114, 2016.
G. Masson and K. Izumi, “TRENDS 2017 IN PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS Survey Report of Selected IEA Countries between 1992-2016,” 2017.
C. Gacía Arbelaéz, G. Vallejo, M. Lou Higgins, and E. M. Escobar, “El Acuerdo De París Así Actuará Colombia Frente Al Cambio Climático,” 2016.
UPME, “Registro, Incentivos y Certificaciones. Fuentes no convencionales de energía - FNCE,” UPME, 2018. [Online]. Available: http://www1.upme.gov.co/Paginas/incentivos-FNCE.aspx. [Accessed: 06-Apr-2018].
IPSE, “Centro Nacional de Monitoreo,” IPSEW, 2018. [Online]. Available: http://22.214.171.124/cnm/. [Accessed: 05-Apr-2018].
UPME, “Plan Energetico Nacional Colombia: Ideario Energético 2050,” 2015.
UPME, MINMINAS, BID, and fmam, “Integración de las energías renovables no convencionales en Colombia,” 2015.
E. E. Gaona, C. L. Trujillo, and J. A. Guacaneme, “Rural microgrids and its potential application in Colombia,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 51, pp. 125–137, Nov. 2015.
V. Vermeulen, J. M. Strauss, and H. J. Vermeulen, “Optimisation of solar PV plant locations for grid support using genetic algorithm and pattern search,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon), 2016, pp. 72–77.
D. Q. Hung, N. Mithulananthan, and R. C. Bansal, “Integration of PV and BES units in commercial distribution systems considering energy loss and voltage stability,” Appl. Energy, vol. 113, pp. 1162–1170, Jan. 2014.
M. S. Bazaraa, J. J. Jarvis, and H. D. Sherali, Linear Programming and Network Flows, 4th ed., no. 1. Wiley, 2011.
M. Afkousi-Paqaleh, A. Abbaspour-Tehrani Fard, and M. Rashidinejad, “Distributed generation placement for congestion management considering economic and financial issues,” Electr. Eng., vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 193–201, Nov. 2010.
M. Gómez, F. Jurado, P. Díaz, and N. Ruiz-Reyes, “Evaluation of a Particle Swarm Optimization Based Method for Optimal Location of Photovoltaic Grid-connected Systems,” Electr. Power Components Syst., vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1123–1138, Jul. 2010.
A. Ali, N. Mohd Nor, T. Ibrahim, and M. Fakhizan Romlie, “Sizing and placement of battery-coupled distributed photovoltaic generations,” J. Renew. Sustain. Energy, vol. 9, no. 5, p. 053501, Sep. 2017.
S. B. Jeyaprabha and A. I. Selvakumar, “Optimal sizing of photovoltaic/battery/diesel based hybrid system and optimal tilting of solar array using the artificial intelligence for remote houses in India,” Energy Build., vol. 96, pp. 40–52, Jun. 2015.
R. R. Gonçalves, J. F. Franco, and M. J. Rider, “Short-term expansion planning of radial electrical distribution systems using mixed-integer linear programming,” IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 256–266, Feb. 2015.
J. F. Franco, M. J. Rider, M. Lavorato, and R. Romero, “Optimal Conductor Size Selection and Reconductoring in Radial Distribution Systems Using a Mixed-Integer LP Approach,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 10–20, Feb. 2013.
P. M. Pardalos, “Convex optimization theory,” Optim. Methods Softw., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 487, Jun. 2010.
J. Fortuny-Amat and B. McCarl, “A Representation and Economic Interpretation of a Two-Level Programming Problem,” J. Oper. Res. Soc., vol. 32, no. 9, p. 783, Sep. 1981.
IEEE Std 1547.4, “IEEE Guide for Design, Operation, and Integration of Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Power Systems,” Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2011.
J. J. Grainger and W. D. Stevenson, “Análisis de Sistemas de Potencia. New York; London: McGraw-Hill.,” 2001.
GIMEL; UPME, “Costos Nivelados de Generación de Electricidad en Colombia.” [Online]. Available: https://docplayer.es/64352257-Costos-nivelados-de-generacion-de-electricidad-en-colombia-grupo-gimel-y-microeconomia-aplicada.html. [Accessed: 05-Sep-2018].
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The texts published in this magazine, as of June of the year 2018, are under a Creative Commons License "Recognition-Non-Commercial-Share Equal" that allows others: