Electric vehicle routing problem with backhauls considering the location of charging stations and the operation of the electric power distribution system
Logistics companies are largely encouraged to make greener their operations through an efficient solution with electric vehicles (EVs). However, the driving range is one of the limiting aspects for the introduction of EVs in logistics fleet, due to the low capacity provided by the batteries to perform the routes. In this regards, it is necessary to set up a framework to virtually increase this battery capacity by locating EV charging stations (EVCSs) along the transportation network for the completion of their routes. By the other side, the Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) express the concern associated with the inclusion of new power demands to be attended (installation of EVCSs) in the Distribution Network (DN), without reducing the optimal power supply management for the end-users. Under these circumstances, in this paper the Electric Vehicle Routing Problem with Backhauls and optimal operation of the Distribution Network (EVRPB-DN) is introduced and formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model, considering the operation of the DN in conditions of maximum power demand. Different candidate points for the EVs charging are considered to recharge the battery at the end of the linehaul route or during the backhaul route. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective approach where the transportation and power distribution networks operation are modeled. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed formulation is tested in VRPB instance datasets and DN test systems from the literature. Pareto fronts for each instance are presented, using the ε-constraint methodology.
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