In Silico Evaluation of Bioactive Peptides Derived from the Digestion of Cow (B. taurus), Sheep (O. aries), Goat (C. hircus), and Buffalo (B. bubalis) Milk Proteins

Keywords: Bioactive peptides, in silico digestion, casein, whey proteins, DPP4 inhibitor


The growing demand for food with high nutritional value has led to the replacement of bovine milk with milk from other ruminants. The protein fraction in milk is relatively constant among species and includes caseins ( S1-casein, -casein, and 𝜅-casein) and whey proteins ( -lactalbumin and -lactoglobulin). Current studies into milk derived bioactive peptides focus on proteins obtained from a single species and are conducted using non-human proteases. In this paper, we make a quantitative comparison of the bioactive peptides obtained from the caseins and whey proteins present in bovine (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk. The study is carried out by in silico digestion with the following proteolytic enzymes found in the human digestive system: pepsin (EC, trypsin (EC, and chymotrypsin (EC In silico digestion and bioactive peptides were characterized using the BIOPEP-UMW database. Quantitative evaluation was carried out by calculating the bioactive peptides release frequencies. As a result, we found eleven types of biologically active peptides (stimulants, renin inhibitors, DPP4 inhibitors, antioxidants, ACE inhibitors, DPP3 inhibitors, hypocholesterolemic agents, CaMPDE inhibitors, regulators, anticarcinogenic agents, and immunomodulators). According to the findings, DPP4 inhibitors had the highest frequency of release, turning milk into a potential source of metabolites that suppress DPP4 activity, which, in turn, could lead to a reduced degradation of incretin hormones. Despite the different values ​​in their frequency of release, the total number of bioactive peptides did not show a statistically significant difference (p> 0.05) among the milk proteins from each of the four species under study.

Author Biographies

Jorge A. Barrero*, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia

Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá-Colombia,

Claudia M. Cruz , Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia

Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá-Colombia,

Jenny Casallas, Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Colombia

Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Bogotá-Colombia,

Juan S. Vásquez, Colegio Anglo Americano, Colombia

Colegio Anglo Americano, Bogotá-Colombia,


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How to Cite
J. A. Barrero, C. M. Cruz, J. Casallas, and J. S. Vásquez, “In Silico Evaluation of Bioactive Peptides Derived from the Digestion of Cow (B. taurus), Sheep (O. aries), Goat (C. hircus), and Buffalo (B. bubalis) Milk Proteins”, TecnoL., vol. 24, no. 50, p. e1731, Jan. 2021.


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