The roles of nanotechnology and internet of nano things in healthcare transformation

  • Mirjana Maksimović University of East Sarajevo
Keywords: Nanotechnology, nanomedicine, IoNT, healthcare, nanotoxicity


Healthcare, as a basic human right, did not remain immune to innovative technologies. Technological progress has significantly contributed to high-quality, on-time, acceptable and affordable healthcare. Since their appearance, nanotechnology and the Internet of Nano Things (IoNT) have continuously affected healthcare and have a tremendous influence on its transformation, contributing to the better outcome. The inclusion of nanotechnology in medicine through nanomaterials and nanodevices, known as nanomedicine, has brought numerous benefits in disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Going further by connecting nanodevices to the Internet, the IoNT paradigm has been created. The inclusion of IoNT concepts in healthcare has resulted in more personalized, timely, and convenient health monitoring and treatment. Hence, nanotechnology and the IoNT hold the potential to completely revolutionize healthcare in the 21st Century, creating a system that will enable early disease detection and diagnosis followed by accurate, on-time and effective treatment with significantly reduced healthcare costs. This paper presents the roles of nanotechnology and IoNT in medicine and healthcare, and attempts to gain an insight of nanoscale solutions and approaches, highlighting benefits and discussing potential risks and concerns. Despite concerns regarding nanotoxicity, privacy and security issues, it is anticipated that nanotechnology and IoNT will show their full potential in medicine and healthcare in the years to come.

Author Biography

Mirjana Maksimović, University of East Sarajevo

PhD in Technical Sciences (Electrical Engineering-Telecommunication), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of East Sarajevo, East Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina


E. Omanović--Mikličanin, M. Maksimović, and V. Vujović, “The Future of Healthcare: Nanomedicine and Internet of Nano Things,” Folia Medica Fac. Med. Univ. Saraeviensis, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 23–28, 2015.

R. R. Letfullin and T. F. George, “Introduction to Nanomedicine,” in Computational Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 1–61.

K. A. Howard, T. Vorup-Jensen, and D. Peer, Nanomedicine. New York, NY: Springer New York, 2016.

Y. Ge, S. Li, S. Wang, and R. Moore, Nanomedicine: Principles and Perspectives. New York, NY: Springer New York, 2014.

Joint European Comission/ETP nanomedicine, “Roadmaps in nanomedicine towards 2020,” 2009.

B. Bogdanov, R. Raykova, Y. Hristov, and P. Ivanov, “Nanostructured materials. Selected Synthesis Methods,” Научни трудове на Русенския Университет, vol. 51, no. 9.1, pp. 96–102, 2012.

N. Rajput, “Methods of preparation of nanoparticles-A review,” Int. J. Adv. Eng. Technol., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1806–1811, 2015.

S. L. Pal, U. Jana, P. K. Manna, G. P. Mohanta, and R. Manavalan, “Nanoparticles–An Overview of Preparation and Characterization,” J. Appl. Pharm. Sci., vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 228–234, Nov. 2011.

S. Shen, B. Ding, S. Zhang, X. Qi, K. Wang, J. Tian, Y. Yan, Y. Ge, and L. Wu, “Near-infrared light-responsive nanoparticles with thermosensitive yolk-shell structure for multimodal imaging and chemo-photothermal therapy of tumor,” Nanomedicine Nanotechnology, Biol. Med., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1607–1616, Jul. 2017.

C. M. D’Almeida and B. J. Roth, “Medical Applications of Nanoparticles,” Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan

A. Khan, R. Rashid, G. Murtaza, and A. Zahra, “Gold Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Applications in Drug Delivery,” Trop. J. Pharm. Res., vol. 13, no. 7, p. 1169, Sep. 2014.

J. Marijnissen and L. Gradoń, “Nanoparticles in Medicine and Environment: Inhalation and Health Effects,” J. Aerosol Med. Pulm. Drug Deliv., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 339–341, Oct. 2010.

M. Grigore, E. Biscu, A. Holban, M. Gestal, and A. Grumezescu, “Methods of Synthesis, Properties and Biomedical Applications of CuO Nanoparticles,” Pharmaceuticals, vol. 9, no. 4, p. 75, Nov. 2016.

K. Alaqad and T. A. Saleh, “Gold and Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis Methods, Characterization Routes and Applications towards Drugs,” J. Environ. Anal. Toxicol., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 525–2161, 2016.

M. Xing, L. Ge, M. Wang, Q. Li, X. Li, and J. Ouyang, “Nanosilver particles in medical applications: synthesis, performance, and toxicity,” Int. J. Nanomedicine, vol. 9, p. 2399, May 2014.

M. Murphy, K. Ting, X. Zhang, C. Soo, and Z. Zheng, “Current Development of Silver Nanoparticle Preparation, Investigation, and Application in the Field of Medicine,” J. Nanomater., vol. 2015, pp. 1–12, 2015.

M. Shah, V. Badwaik, Y. Kherde, H. K. Waghwani, T. Modi, Z. P. Aguilar, H. Rodgers, W. Hamilton, T. Marutharaj, C. Webb, M. B. Lawrenz, and R. Dakshinamurthy, “Gold nanoparticles: various methods of synthesis and antibacterial applications.,” Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed., vol. 19, pp. 1320–44, Jun. 2014.

D. Pedone, M. Moglianetti, E. De Luca, G. Bardi, and P. P. Pompa, “Platinum nanoparticles in nanobiomedicine,” Chem. Soc. Rev., vol. 46, no. 16, pp. 4951–4975, 2017.

E. K. Fodjo, K. M. Gabriel, B. Y. Serge, D. Li, C. Kong, and A. Trokourey, “Selective synthesis of Fe3O4AuxAgy nanomaterials and their potential applications in catalysis and nanomedicine,” Chem. Cent. J., vol. 11, no. 1, p. 58, Dec. 2017.

T. Devasena, “Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nanomaterials,” Springer, 2017, pp. 1–13.

M. Fojtů, W. Z. Teo, and M. Pumera, “Environmental impact and potential health risks of 2D nanomaterials,” Environ. Sci. Nano, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1617–1633, 2017.

M. S. Bakshi, “Nanotoxicity in Systemic Circulation and Wound Healing,” Chem. Res. Toxicol., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1253–1274, Jun. 2017.

J. Wolfram, M. Zhu, Y. Yang, J. Shen, E. Gentile, D. Paolino, M. Fresta, G. Nie, C. Chen, H. Shen, M. Ferrari, and Y. Zhao, “Safety of Nanoparticles in Medicine.,” Curr. Drug Targets, vol. 16, no. 14, pp. 1671–81, 2015.

B. Viswanath and S. Kim, “Influence of Nanotoxicity on Human Health and Environment: The Alternative Strategies,” in Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 242, Springer, 2016, pp. 61–104.

A. Pourmand and M. Abdollahi, “Current Opinion on Nanotoxicology,” DARU J. Pharm. Sci., vol. 20, no. 1, p. 95, 2012.

V. Limaye, G. Fortwengel, and D. Limaye, “Regulatory roadmap for nanotechnology based medicines,” Int. J. Drug Regul. Aff., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 33–41, 2014.

P. Takhar and S. Mahant, “In vitro methods for nanotoxicity assessment: advantages and applications,” Arch Appl Sci Res, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 389–403, 2011.

M. Umair, I. Javed, M. Rehman, A. Madni, A. Javeed, A. Ghafoor, and M. Ashraf, “Nanotoxicity of Inert Materials: The Case of Gold, Silver and Iron.,” J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 161–80, 2016.

C. Ostiguy, B. Soucy, G. Lapointe, C. Woods, L. Ménard, and M. Trottier, Health Effects of Nanoparticles - Second Edition, IRSST – Communications Division, 2008.

D. S. Anderson, M. J. Sydor, P. Fletcher, and A. Holian, “Nanotechnology: The Risks and Benefits for Medical Diagnosis and Treatment,” J. Nanomed. Nanotechnol., vol. 7, no. 4, p. e143, 2016.

F. Dressler and F. Kargl, “Security in nano communication: Challenges and open research issues,” in 2012 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 2012, pp. 6183–6187.

F. Dressler and F. Kargl, “Towards security in nano-communication: Challenges and opportunities,” Nano Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 151–160, Sep. 2012.

V. Vassiliou, “Security Issues in Nanoscale Communication Networks,” in 3rd NaNoNetworking Summit, 2011.

I. F. Akyildiz, J. M. Jornet, and M. Pierobon, “Nanonetworks,” Commun. ACM, vol. 54, no. 11, p. 84, Nov. 2011.

F. Mohammad and H. A. Al-Lohedan, “Chitosan-Mediated Layer-by-Layer Assembling Approach for the Fabrication of Biomedical Probes and Advancement of Nanomedicine,” in Nanocellulose and Nanohydrogel Matrices, Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2017, pp. 91–124.

M. Maksimović and E. Omanović-Mikličanin, “Towards green nanotechnology: maximizing benefits and minimizing harm,” in CMBEBIH 2017, Springer, 2017, pp. 164–170.

K. Parveen, V. Banse, and L. Ledwani, “Green synthesis of nanoparticles: Their advantages and disadvantages,” in AIP Conference Proceedings, 2016, vol. 1724, no. 1, p. 20048.

S. Kumar, V. Lather, and D. Pandita, “Green synthesis of therapeutic nanoparticles: an expanding horizon,” Nanomedicine, vol. 10, no. 15, pp. 2451–2471, Aug. 2015.

S. Saif, A. Tahir, and Y. Chen, “Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles and their environmental applications and implications,” Nanomaterials, vol. 6, no. 11, p. 209, 2016.

P. Velusamy, G. V. Kumar, V. Jeyanthi, J. Das, and R. Pachaiappan, “Bio-Inspired Green Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Mechanism, and Antibacterial Application,” Toxicol. Res., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 95–102, Apr. 2016.

G. S. Nikolić, M. D. Cakić, S. Glišić, D. J. Cvetković, Ž. J. Mitić, and D. Z. Marković, “Study of Green Nanoparticles and Biocomplexes Based on Exopolysaccharide by Modern Fourier Transform Spectroscopy,” in Fourier Transforms - High-tech Application and Current Trends, InTech, 2017.

A. Nayyar, V. Puri, and D.-N. Le, “Internet of Nano Things (IoNT): Next Evolutionary Step in Nanotechnology,” Nanosci. Nanotechnol., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 4–8, 2017

S. Ni, “Nanoparticles carrying natural product for drug delivery,” J. Drug Deliv. Ther., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 73–75, 2017.

B. Bhushan, V. Khanadeev, B. Khlebtsov, N. Khlebtsov, and P. Gopinath, “Impact of albumin based approaches in nanomedicine: Imaging, targeting and drug delivery,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., vol. 246, pp. 13–39, Aug. 2017.

J. Chen, J. Ding, Y. Wang, J. Cheng, S. Ji, X. Zhuang, and X. Chen, “Sequentially Responsive Shell-Stacked Nanoparticles for Deep Penetration into Solid Tumors,” Adv. Mater., vol. 29, no. 32, p. 1701170, Aug. 2017.

A. P. Nikalje, “Nanotechnology and its Applications in Medicine,” Med. Chem. (Los. Angeles)., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 81–89, 2015.

B. Asiyanbola and W. Soboyejo, “For the Surgeon: An Introduction to Nanotechnology,” J. Surg. Educ., vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 155–161, Mar. 2008.

K. K. Alharbi and Y. A. Al-sheikh, “Role and implications of nanodiagnostics in the changing trends of clinical diagnosis,” Saudi J. Biol. Sci., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 109–117, Apr. 2014.

I. Akyildiz and J. Jornet, “The Internet of nano-things,” IEEE Wirel. Commun., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 58–63, Dec. 2010.

Y. Bhatt and C. Bhatt, “Internet of Things in HealthCare,” in Internet of Things and Big Data Technologies for Next Generation Healthcare, Springer, 2017, pp. 13–33.

H. Ezz El-Din and D. H. Manjaiah, “Internet of Nano Things and Industrial Internet of Things,” in Internet of Things: Novel Advances and Envisioned Applications, vol. 25, D. P. Acharjya and M. K. Geetha, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2017, pp. 109–123.

Y. N. Chang, M. Zhang, L. Xia, J. Zhang, and G. Xing, “The Toxic Effects and Mechanisms of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles,” Materials (Basel)., vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 2850–2871, Dec. 2012.

A. H. Idris, “Nanotechnology Standards development,” in National Workshop on Nanosafety and Regulatory Aspect of Nanotechnology, 2014.

D. Nath and P. Banerjee, “Green nanotechnology – A new hope for medical biology,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 997–1014, Nov. 2013.

How to Cite
M. Maksimović, “The roles of nanotechnology and internet of nano things in healthcare transformation”, TecnoL., vol. 20, no. 40, pp. 139-153, Sep. 2017.


Download data is not yet available.
Review Article

More on this topic