Agro-Industrial Potential of the Mandarina Epicarp a Natural Coloring Allternative in Bread

Keywords: Carotenoids, Phenolic compounds, Antioxidant capacity, Citric, Chromaticity


This study evaluated the agro-industrial potential of flour made of the epicarp of Oneco mandarin (Citrus reticulata) as a possible natural bread coloring. We analyzed the physiochemical properties of said fruit, such as pH, aw, color parameters (luminosity, L*; chromaticity, C*; and pitch angle, h°), acidity percentage, dry matter percentage, quantification of carotenoids by spectrophotometry, phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity in flour, and color parameters (L*, C*, and h°) in bread. We found that, after convective drying, the fruit retained significantly higher concentrations of bioactive compounds, such as phenols. We also observed an increase in antioxidant capacity and carotenoid content, in addition to significant changes in the color parameters (L* and C*). When the mandarin epicarp flour substituted conventional flour in the bread formula, we noted a significant increase in the concentration of the carotenoid content; the peak of this substitution was 4%. Regarding color, parameters L* and C* exhibited significant differences; L* was higher in the 2% substitution, while C* was higher in the 4% substitution, and h° did not present significant differences in any of the formulas. Finally, we conclude that mandarin epicarp flour can be an important alternative additive for natural coloring in bread making.

Author Biographies

Luis E. Ordoñez-Santos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia

PhD. en Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad de Ingeniería y Administración, Departamento de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Palmira-Colombia,

Jessica Esparza-Estrada*, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia

Ingeniera Agroindustrial, Facultad de Ingeniería y Administración, Departamento de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Palmira-Colombia,

Pedro Vanegas-Mahecha, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia

MSc. en Ingeniería Agrícola, Facultad de Ingeniería y Administración, Departamento de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Palmira-Colombia,


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How to Cite
Ordoñez-Santos, L. E., Esparza-Estrada, J., & Vanegas-Mahecha, P. (2020). Agro-Industrial Potential of the Mandarina Epicarp a Natural Coloring Allternative in Bread. TecnoLógicas, 23(48), 17-29.


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